cmath
– mathematical functions for complex numbers¶
The cmath
module provides some basic mathematical functions for
working with complex numbers.
Functions¶

cmath.
cos
(z)¶ Return the cosine of
z
.

cmath.
exp
(z)¶ Return the exponential of
z
.

cmath.
log
(z)¶ Return the natural logarithm of
z
. The branch cut is along the negative real axis.

cmath.
log10
(z)¶ Return the base10 logarithm of
z
. The branch cut is along the negative real axis.

cmath.
phase
(z)¶ Returns the phase of the number
z
, in the range (pi, +pi].

cmath.
polar
(z)¶ Returns, as a tuple, the polar form of
z
.

cmath.
rect
(r, phi)¶ Returns the complex number with modulus
r
and phasephi
.

cmath.
sin
(z)¶ Return the sine of
z
.

cmath.
sqrt
(z)¶ Return the squareroot of
z
.