cmath – mathematical functions for complex numbers

The cmath module provides some basic mathematical functions for working with complex numbers.

Functions

cmath.cos(z)

Return the cosine of z.

cmath.exp(z)

Return the exponential of z.

cmath.log(z)

Return the natural logarithm of z. The branch cut is along the negative real axis.

cmath.log10(z)

Return the base-10 logarithm of z. The branch cut is along the negative real axis.

cmath.phase(z)

Returns the phase of the number z, in the range (-pi, +pi].

cmath.polar(z)

Returns, as a tuple, the polar form of z.

cmath.rect(r, phi)

Returns the complex number with modulus r and phase phi.

cmath.sin(z)

Return the sine of z.

cmath.sqrt(z)

Return the square-root of z.

Constants

cmath.e

base of the natural logarithm

cmath.pi

the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter